Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES) Model

Sectors and Themes
Expertise Level
Resource Type
Analysis Tools

"Mitigation Methods and Tools in the Energy Sector" by UNFCCC

Documentation by IEA

Inputs Needed
End-use energy service demands by region
Existing stock of energy related equipment by sector
Characteristics of available future technologies
Present and future sources of primary energy supply and their potentials
Outputs Provided
Energy system configurations
Energy flows
Energy commodity prices
GHG emissions
Capacities of technologies
Energy costs
Marginal emissions abatement costs
Developer or Source
International Energy Agency (IEA)

TIMES is a bottom-up model generator that uses linear-programming to produce a least-cost energy system, optimized according to a number of user constraints, over medium to long-term time horizons. The model generator combines two systematic approaches to modeling energy: a technical engineering approach and an economic approach. The model encompasses all the steps from primary resources through the chain of processes that transform, transport, distribute and convert energy into the supply of energy services demanded by energy consumers. Once all the inputs, constraints and scenarios have been put in place, the model will attempt to solve and determine the energy system that meets the energy service demands over the entire time horizon at least cost.

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