The government of Mozambique has taken preliminary steps to set up a national M&E framework for climate change. This framework will help the country assess how climate investment in key strategic areas such as agriculture, water, social protection and health will lead to improved climate resilience. Results from the M&E framework will help with meeting global reporting requirements related to adaptation under the Paris Agreement’s Enhanced Transparency Framework (ETF). This case study highlights how a national M&E system for climate change can provide a foundation for meeting global reporting commitments without placing undue burden on countries. However, Mozambique’s framework is not yet operational due to insufficient capacity for assessing the impacts of climate adaptation actions; and a limited understanding of global reporting requirements. Therefore, more M&E capacity building is needed to operationalize the framework; implement Mozambique’s national M&E system for assessing adaptation results; and meet reporting requirements. In 2020, FAO delivered a four-week M&E virtual training program to bridge some of these capacity gaps.