The objective of the project was to prepare and submit intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) to the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreement and have institutional arrangements in place that support the INDC process.
Sectoral data and other inputs are required. See below for more detailed information.
The GACMO was very easy to use mainly since it is a spreadsheet based tool and the output can be easily comprehended, as it provided easy to understand outputs like Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for all the measures included. We found the seminar conducted by UNEP DTU Partnership very helpful and we were having regular Skype calls with UNEP DTU Partnership. The main challenge was collecting the input data as Maldives being a Small Island Developing State (SIDS), the institutional arrangements for data collection was lacking.
GACMO model enables the user to predict the BAU scenario from a base year emission and allows users to determine the emission reductions from various mitigation options. The tool also determines the marginal abatement cost for each of the proposed mitigation options. The tool depends on many assumptions, however these assumptions had to be made due to lack of baseline data in the Maldives. The scope of Maldives' INDC was on the energy sector including transport and waste sector, but the tool did not calculate emissions and mitigation potential from waste and LULUCF sectors. However, the emissions from waste sector and LULUCF is minute in the Maldives when compared to energy sector including transport. One key shortcoming is that it uses linear extrapolation based on a growth rate, which makes it difficult to account for the inter-annual variability of economic activities and emissions. Thus, the tool is not fit to generate multi-year BAU/mitigation scenarios but rather single year BAU/mitigation scenarios.
The tool has greatly contributed to the project's success as it allowed the Maldives to determine the mitigation contribution in such a short period. Other users should consider the importance of having institutional arrangements for continuous data collection, which may be used for GHG inventories and determination of mitigation potentials accurately.
The main inputs necessary for the tool include:
1. Fuel conversion and consumption data in various sectors of the economy. Particularly the fuel consumption data of tourism sector and transport sector;
2. National GDP growth;
3. National Monetary Policy (policy rates);
4. Growth in Tourist Arrival rate;
5. Energy Prices for the current period;
6. Import of the electrical appliances;
7. List of potential mitigation options.