Driven by concerns of energy security high dependence on imported fuels and environmental pollution due to improper waste disposal, Thailand has placed increasing emphasis on waste-to-energy options through its 10-year Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2012-21). The plan presents a target of a 25% contribution of renewable and alternative energy sources by 2021, of which 30% is to come from bioenergy and municipal solid waste, representing an important step in the transition to a low-carbon economy.
The focus on waste and agricultural residues in the AEDP is a good example of policy coordination and alignment with decentralised implementation. The AEDP objectives are aligned with those of the National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) as well as laws for municipal level governance. As part of the strategy, pilot implementation targets city level actions aimed at scaling up capacity building and replication with increased efficiency in other cities within and outside of Thailand. The strategy is highly integrated at various levels of governance in terms of its strategic goals and its mode of implementation. Its linkages with national goals of energy security, climate change and export promotion are notable and demonstrate clear political direction and leadership.