Brazil has a longstanding, successful biofuels program and a well-developed flex-fuel market. Gasoline and ethanol options are widespread at fueling stations across the country, and most new cars are flex-fuel vehicles that can run on any mix of gasoline and ethanol. Brazil’s sugarcane industry has benefited from the resulting increase in ethanol demand. A recent study of the impact of flex-fuel cars on retail fuel markets in Rio de Janiero concludes that increased flex-fuel car penetration corresponds with lower prices for gasoline and ethanol, suggesting that Brazil’s biofuels program broadly benefits consumers financially regardless of whether they have flex-fuel or gasoline-powered vehicles. The program also supports key climate goals, including Brazil’s INDC target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 43% below 2005 levels by 2030. To support this goal, the country aims to make biofuels constitute18% of its energy mix by 2030.Highlighted below, and profiled in this case study, are good practices and actions supporting positive outcomes from Brazil’s biofuels program.